Friday, July 10, 2020
History Essays For SaleHistory essays for sale are a special type of paper that have been offered to students who are looking for some form of structure to their higher education. You can be the only one of your friends with this project and there will still be ones without the time or the inclination to create one for themselves. But there is a way for anyone to create the paper and then to pass it along to the student in the class.Papers for sale are quite interesting and there are many people who are willing to sell them because they see value in them. In the world today, information has become valuable and as long as people will be able to learn from the past, they will be able to do so. Some historians would even be willing to sell their papers for profit because it helps them get some funds that can help them in the future.There are also those who are ready to buy history essays for sale because of the online course that they would be able to take with that knowledge. These peo ple need to know all the information that they can from the past and this makes them want to gain a lot of knowledge and then pass it on to the students. History essays for sale are a good tool for this.The history that people learn about can be found in various places like the written word, or they can find it online. This is the reason why people are not willing to learn these history facts and knowledge by reading a book. Since the history books are expensive, most people prefer to buy history essays for sale because it will save them money.Essays for sale are actually a kind of preparation for a major degree. It helps people learn in a proper way by which they will be able to solve any question that might come up during the classes. As a result, they will be able to give the best answers to any question that comes up. There are other reasons why people need to know more about the history.Most people have been wrong in the past and those who have wronged people in the past had to pay for the consequences. History essays for sale helps them learn what happened in the past and why it happened in the past. They can use this information in the future to make the lives of people better and they will become good citizens in the future.There are two types of essays for sale: one where the person is selling the essay and the other where the person is giving the essay for free. It does not matter if the person is selling or giving the essay for free because this paper is what the students need. The first type is also referred to as buy now for the purpose of selling it later but this is also done for educational purposes.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The French word mairie, pronounced may-ee, means town/city hall, but it can also be used to refer to aÃ city council, mayors office, or the city as a political entity. If youre in France, you might use this word to ask for directions in town or to refer to the actions of a local government when youre talking politics with friends. Examples Cest Ã cÃ ´tÃ © de la mairie. Its next to the town hall .La mairie a dÃ ©cidÃ © de fermer le thÃ ©Ã ¢tre. The city council decided to close the theater.Jaime bien la publicitÃ © de la Mairie de Toulouse. I really like the City of Toulouses ad.Ã You will also seeÃ mairieÃ used in conjunction with other related words. For example:Ã La mairie darrondissementÃ town hall of an arrondissement Le secretaire de mairieÃ town clerk
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In Letters from a Bipolar Mother Alyssa Reyans states, Ã¢â¬Å"bipolar robs you of that which is you. It can take from you the very core of your being and replace it with something that is completely opposite of who and what you truly are.Ã¢â¬ Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are often misdiagnosed because bipolar is such a complex disorder that contains symptoms of other mental illnesses. Bipolar disorder is a debilitating mental illness that consists of multiple different forms, each with their own symptoms and severity. Bipolar I and bipolar II are the two main forms of the disorder and often the most studied. Research has been conducted in both the fields of psychology and neuroscience but questions over the main cause of onset of the disorder still arise. Researchers have concluded through the most current research that the most influential factors in the development of bipolar disorder are psychological trauma and neurobiological abnormalities. I argue that researc hing psychological trauma is the best way to understand and treat the disorder; however inconsistencies and lack of research in both psychology and neuroscience has led researchers to misinterpret data thus creating false conclusions. Bipolar disorder is considered to be on a spectrum that ranges in symptoms and severity and is directly related to psychological trauma and genetic composition. Bipolar I is categorized as the most extreme form of the disorder that cycles between manic and depressive episodes.Show MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Child Onset Schizophrenia Essay1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2014) It is also important to properly diagnosis schizophrenia in children, as there are similarities in symptoms for other DSM-5 diagnosis such as autism spectrum, oppositional defiant disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, and bipolar, among others (McDonell McClellan, 2007). Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of the Issue When diagnosing child onset schizophrenia, it is important to consider all aspects of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal history as there is a high rate of misdiagnosisRead MoreEffects Of Maltreatment On Childhood Brain Development2058 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdevelopment for different areas of the brain. A few areas that are of interest are the stress-influenced areas, which are at an increased risk for developmental problems when exposed to maltreatment. The extra stress from such exposures can influence abnormalities throughout the brain, which have been linked to structure changes with in the corpus callosum, anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, as well as changes to stress related hormoneRead MorePsychological Effects Of Complex Traum Making A Case For Narrative Exposure Therapy2697 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesRachael Wandrey COURSE ASSIGNMENT DATE Treating the Psychological Effects of Complex Trauma: Making a Case for Narrative Exposure Therapy Defining Complex Trauma Complex trauma is a term that was established to differentiate traumas that occur repeatedly from traumas that happen in only one instance (herein referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"simple traumaÃ¢â¬ ; Coutois, 2008). For instance, complex trauma is typically referred to in the context of abusive childhoods wherein the child experiences repeated traumatic eventsRead MoreToward an Understanding of Major Depressive Disorder1855 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMajor Depressive Disorder is a chronic, persistent mental illness. EPIDEMIOLOGY Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or unipolar depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders seen in primary care but only half of all MDD sufferers seek medical help (Johnson Vanderhoef 109; Myers DeWall 520). NEED A TIE IN SENTENCE Incidence Prevalence. It is estimated that 5% of the United States (US) population (or approximately 10,000,000 Americans) are impacted by MDD making it the leading cause of disabilityRead MoreDescription Of An Example Of A Presentation8050 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesof an assistive technology device. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Ã¢â¬â a severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention; often leads to learning and behavior problems at home, school, and work; also called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Autism (Autism Society of America Home Page) Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. The result of neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism andRead MoreAbnormal Psychology. Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior20707 Words Ã |Ã 83 PagesCHAPTER Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior CHAPTER OUTLINE HOW ARE ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR PATTERNS METHODS OF ASSESSMENT 80Ã¢â¬â99 CLASSIFIED? 70Ã¢â¬â77 The Clinical Interview The DSM and Models of Abnormal Behavior Computerized Interviews Psychological Tests STANDARDS OF ASSESSMENT 77Ã¢â¬â80 Neuropsychological Assessment Reliability Behavioral Assessment Validity Cognitive Assessment Physiological Measurement SOCIOCULTURAL AND ETHNIC FACTORS IN ASSESSMENT 99Ã¢â¬â100 SUMMING UP 100Ã¢â¬â101 T R U T H or
Question: Produce a report for HFL analysing the Issues facing the Industry and an evaluation of the Competitive pressures facing the Company. Answer: Introduction In the recent years, due to financial hit, many companies had collapsed and overtaken by bigger companies due to which employees have to face issues affected by changes. When a company fails to undertake the responsibility for change, it causes resistance to change among employees. According to Lawrence, resistance to change is the act which is made by a group or any individual when any observance is made regarding any change in the organisation or a workplace which may result as a threat to them.(Lawrence, 1969) Although changes are necessary in any company, sometimes it is not accepted and resisted by the employees as a result it makes them leave the company. In organisational theory many scholars had suggested that the concept of resistance should be reconsidered and taken as a key element in understanding the employees reactions towards changes made in an organisation for further amendments. The symptom of resistance is visible and clear which are shown among the behaviour of the employees like denial in work, shock, irritation, and resentment. But sometimes the resistance proves to be intense enough resulting in employees resignations also.(Bringselius, 2010) Reasons For Resistance To Change In Cidesign This report throws light on one such company named CIDesign that was under taken by Germany based company DDesign which caused resistance among employees due to change in ownership. The following figure shows some factors which brings resistance to change in organisations. Figure: Reasons for resisting change(Anon., 2012) In order to identify the reason behind employees resistance to change, it is important to study the root cause and requires a process considering job, personal, and social factors.(Rick, 2011) The employees of CIDesign lacked information about the cause of change in management and thus had to face rapid changes in the process of management. This made them threatened as they were not sure of their position in the company and feared of job loss. Since DDesign is a bigger company which owned 10% of UK creative design business and was more focussed on profit making, it adapted many cost saving measures which was resisted by present employees. Also, the comparison of their work with other sub levelled company based in India and China made their personal morale down. The change in style and culture of the company by making it a new entity i.e. DDesign, and the shifting of its headquarters to a newer place, generated discontent among employees as they were proud of the present entrepreneuri al culture and supple work engagements. Thus they had strong reasons for their resistance which led some of them resign their job. Change Management Process Undertaken At Cidesign Since CIDesign was prone to loss making, certain changes were important to be made and the same was done after its acquisition. The change management process undertaken by DDesign over the last year was due to ineffective management in the organisation of CIDesign which resulted in the companys financial hit. Although change is inherently disturbing for the present environment, still it was essential in CIDesign so as to outcome the reasons behind financial crisis. According to Kotter and Cohen, a successful change will always have a proper solution to a problem and engage people and management for a better outcome. It clearly shows that DDesign followed a change process which involved steps like setting of goal, internal and external analysis, strategy formulation and its implementation. Since the company had issues regarding finance, DDesigns vision was to make it a profitable organization and rebranding works of CIdesign under its name.(John P. Kotter, 2002) Proper analysis is the most important part in a change process as it deals with the collection of data and information which gives shape to the next two steps.(Thomas G. Cummings, 2008) Under this step, DDesign collected important information and identified initiatives that were required to help the business grow. For this internal and external analysis were made that could affect the process in meeting the desired goal. In CIDesign, it is stated that the company had a reputation for its quality work and flexible management. But that was not sufficient in monetary terms and hence required to be altered. After analyzing the process, the company introduced various cost effective methods both internally and externally. In order to reduce the cost, the company outsourced design work to India and China and thus was able to expand its business. The change in the employees income was not done adequately which again reduced the cost. The same was resisted by the employees which resulted in loss of its major crea tive designers which proved to be a threat in the company and made it important to conduct internal analysis. While implementation, DDesign showed its interest in moving its headquarters to Berlin in order to operate both the companies jointly and under the same brand. Since DDesign is efficient in its management processes, it undertook the change management process in CIDesign to make it profitable.(Cummings, 2008) Kurt Lewin Three Stage Model, 1940 Kurt Lewins three stage model demonstrates how to change an organisation from one position to another by creating persuasive ways for a change. The steps involved comprise of unfreezing the problem, and then it requires to be implemented with suitable changes and at last stabilize the manoeuvre with better proposed performance and freeze the same. In DDesign, Kurt Lewin three step change theory can provide an effective summary that will help to envisage, plan and administer the organisational strategy which can prevent further loss of employees.(Kritsonis, 2005) Figure: Kurt Lewin Three Step Mode(Schottle, 2016) During the unfreezing stage the company needs to give time and provide discussions with the employees to eliminate their worries by applying restraining force. In this stage the staff resistance cause like threat of job, comparing their work with sub standards, unsure about their new owner, and other factor like little change in their income etc needs to be considered. After consideration, driving force has to be applied in which the management can provide the employees with satisfactory raise in income, support from superior level management, and job assurance. This method will not only engage all the employees to work together towards positive driving direction but also diminish the restraining force. For applying the same model, DDesign needs to make arrangements for a cross table meetings with the existing employees so as to understand their personal views and problems. The second stage in the change model deals with the actual change that includes both planning and implementation in the organisation. In this stage the employees are educated about their changed organisational culture and leadership. Along with making them comfortable with new ideas and guidelines, it is monitored and overseen by a team leader who will provide the employees with essential information. This model requires time and patience as it focuses on the personnel transition issues regarding change of work environment. Since the takeover of the company had left the employees resistant to work DDesign have to anticipate and handle the situation critically. The employees need time to recognize the benefits of change along with proper bonding with the changed management.(Morrison, 2014) In the final stage of Lewins theory i.e. the refreezing stage occurs when the changed practice is deemed completed and fulfilled. Like in DDesign, once the two stages are performed successfully and the employees have become comfortable with the new environment and new policies, an evaluation has to made regarding problems encountered, success recognized, and challenges met throughout the process for future reference. Thus with the help of Lewins theory we can eliminate the resistance of employees and the fear of change management through proper planning and active participation of employees in the change process.(Levasseur, 2001) Recomendation The strategy required in acquisition demands critical steps after understanding the purpose for change without hampering present assets. Proper communication is required with the employees to set a specific goal and discuss reasons for change. After inquiries have been made it needs to be implemented in such a way that does not harm the sentiments of employees.(John Jones, 2004) Since DDesign outsourced some of the design from cheaper quality sources, it made the employees a feel of dishonour and resulted in resentment among them. Management can go slow on the outsourcing policy at least for the design part to help the existing employees gain a sense of belonging in the newly merged entity. Also, to help eliminate the apprehension of the existing staff about their future, DDesign can make sure the remaining staffs connect with the rest of the organization, by arranging for cross visits between the other work places, and creating a positive rapport with their peers. While shifting of its hub, which again was a calculated decision, DDesign can make presentations and cite examples of other companies to justify the reason .They can also enrol some of the existing employees to its Berlin branch, so that they can retain top talent and ensure that the people at former CIDesign have a connection with the organization as a whole.(Morgan, 2015) The intent of rebranding of the CIDesign product has been a key issue with the old employees who left the organization. The Management has to tread cautiously on this front because for a brand to succeed, its core team must be on board with the management on its decision. They have to convince the remaining employees that their original brand will receive a fresh makeover under DDesign. One of the advantages Ddesign can bring in is from its IT division at Berlin, which can work better by coming up with analytical data about UKs Creative design business, thereby providing a boost to its Cidesign division. Since the employees can ge t more focussed on a particular trend/ demand currently in their region, Cidesigns product may reach new heights of acceptability. Thus with a planned change management process the strength of the organization can receive a long lasting achievement without any further loss of its employees.(Mehmedovic, 2016 References: Anon., 2012. Kalpan Financial Knowledge Bank. [Online] Available at: https://kfknowledgebank.kaplan.co.uk/KFKB/Wiki%20Pages/Managing%20strategic%20change.aspx [Accessed 7 August 2017]. Bringselius, L.D., 2010. Resistance to change. [Online] Available at: https://www.lri.lu.se/media/lri/workingpapers/2010-1-resistance-to-change-louise-d.-bringselius.pdf [Accessed 21 July 2017]. Cummings, J., 2008. How to Lead Change Management. [Online] Available at: https://businessfinancemag.com/hr/how-lead-change-management [Accessed 21 July 2017]. John Jones, D.A.C., 2004. 10 Principles of Change Management. [Online] Available at: https://www.strategy-business.com/article/rr00006?gko=643d0 [Accessed 22 July 2017]. John P. Kotter, D.S.C., 2002. The Heart of Change: Real-life Stories of how People Change Their Organizations. [Online] Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=xxjuXbzQKv0Coi=fndpg=PR11dq=kotter+and+cohen%27s+model+of+changeots=VEhGC9mRyKsi [Accessed 21 July 2017]. Kritsonis, A., 2005. Comparison of Change Theories. [Online] Available at: https://qiroadmap.org/download/Phase%201%20Resources/Kritsonis,%20Alicia%20Comparison%20of%20Change%20Theories.pdf [Accessed 22 July 2017]. Lawrence, P.R., 1969. How to Deal With Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: https://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change [Accessed 21 July 2017]. Levasseur, R.E., 2001. People Skills: Change Management Tools. [Online] Available at: https://mindfirepress.com/uploads/Lewin_s_change_model_INTERFACES_2001.pdf [Accessed 22 July 2017]. Mehmedovic, M.G.a.J., 2016. 5 Strategies for Leading Change. [Online] Available at: https://www.academicimpressions.com/news/5-strategies-leading-change [Accessed 22 July 2017]. Morgan, E., 2015. 5 Tips for Effectively Managing Change. [Online] Available at: https://www.inc.com/eric-morgan/5-tips-for-effectively-managing-change.html [Accessed 22 July 2017]. Morrison, M., 2014. Kurt Lewin change theory three step model unfreeze, change, freeze. [Online] Available at: https://rapidbi.com/kurt-lewin-three-step-change-theory/ [Accessed 22 July 2017]. Rick, T., 2011. TOP 12 REASONS WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE. [Online] Available at: https://www.torbenrick.eu/blog/change-management/12-reasons-why-people-resist-change/ [Accessed 21 July 2017]. Schottle, A., 2016. Using Lewins Change Model to Understand Continuous Improvement. [Online] Available at: https://leanconstructionblog.com/Using-Lewin-Change-Model-To-Understand-Continuous-Improvement.html [Accessed 7 August 2017]. Thomas G. Cummings, C.G.W., 2008. Organization Development Change,9th edition. [Online] (9) Available at: https://otgo.tehran.ir/Portals/0/pdf/organization%20development%20and%20change.pdf [Accessed 21 July 2017].
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Introduction There are several essential literary styles employed by both playwrights and filmmakers while presenting their literary works to their targeted audience. They use such styles like symbolism, motifs and irony, to mention but a few, in a manner that leaves the audience entertained.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tartuffe Vs Candide specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time, they address certain social and moral concerns. Jean-Baptiste Moliere and FranÃ §ois Mariane Aurouet De Voltaire provide an exemplification of authors who have successfully used such techniques in their plays, most of which are characterized by dark comedies that unmask the society in an attempt to shed light on the significance of differentiating the real from the constructed appearance. As the paper unfolds, social masking is a technique that is dominant in both Candide and Tartuffe. As used by the Moliere and Voltaire, social masking serves as a mechanism for depicting how people conceal their true selves for the sake of their individualized gains, both materially and socially. Overview of Tartuffe Authored by Moliere, Tartuffe presents the cultural, political and the social atmosphere that existed during the reign of King Louis XIV of France in the seventieth century. Despite immense popularity before the eyes of his audiences, MoliereÃ¢â¬â¢s scholarly works including Tartuffe faced heavy criticisms from religious groups and civic leaders, perhaps due to the themes contained in his works that presented religious leaders as diverting from their anticipated roles in the society. However, in spite of the enormous condemnations amid censorship of his works, particularly Tartuffe, it gained intensive international reputation with performances being staged in Germany, Holland, and England. Religious hypocrisy was evident during and prior to the time of writing of the drama. More often, it went withou t criticism. This was largely because religious leaders were considered as holy and true representatives of right in the society. In his endeavor to address the situation, as it stood on the ground, Moliere employed the motif of social masking as a strategic style that brought out the concerns of religious hypocrisy before the eyes of the society. Motif of social mask in Tartuffe Religious hypocrisy, characterized by deception, is a principal theme that repeats itself throughout the drama Tartuffe. Tartuffe, despite being a religious leader comes out clearly as an architect of deceit whose practices are not consistent with what he professes or preaches. He accomplishes his intentions to deceive Orgon by feigning being a virtuous man. Consequently, Orgon, in addition to over trusting him, more than his wife or those other people who are close to him, goes to the level of keeping Tartuffe in his home as a moral guide.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let' s see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tartuffe tells his servant to tell anyone who inquires of his whereabouts that he is busy offering charity work to the downtrodden and poor people. Rather than being involved in the activities that he claims, he attempts to seduce the wife of his friend Orgon (Moliere 1.5.21). In fact, the play also refers Tartuffe to as a Ã¢â¬Å"imposterÃ¢â¬ meaning one who fools others into thinking that he is someone other than his/her real self (Wightman Para.12). Later in the play, Tartuffe reveals himself as a real imposter who has committed a myriad of crimes under disguised identities. Most of his crimes heighten based on his greed for material gain and social status. For instance, by deploying the Ã¢â¬Ëmask of pietyÃ¢â¬â¢, Tartuffe makes Orgon adore him (Wightman Para 16). Social mask forms a central symbol in the play Tartuffe. The mask covers up true peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s appearances before the eyes of others. Through the motif of social mask, Moliere stands a chance to explore thoroughly the theme of deception. Numerous characters attribute the motif of social mask to Tartuffe. As a way of example, Dorine laments, Tartuffe Ã¢â¬Å"passes for a saitÃ¢â¬ ¦in fact, he is nothing but a hypocriteÃ¢â¬ (Moliere 1.1.33). On learning the deceptive nature of Tartuffe, Orgon complains about his mistakes prompting Cleante to inform him that he had made a terrible Ã¢â¬Å"mistake in taking of piety for the face of the true natureÃ¢â¬ (Moliere 2.4.23). He further adds that Orgon should make impeccable attempts in the future to equip himself well with mechanisms of Ã¢â¬Å"stripping off the mask, learning what true virtues meanÃ¢â¬ (Moliere 2.4 31). Put differently, he tells him to attempt to know how to differentiate between true and disguised appearance. The author, too, examines various dynamics of power within families with the help of the social masks coupled with the th eme of deception or hypocrisy. Despite applying of the motif of the social mask as a symbol to reveal the true nature of the main villain, Tartuffe, Moliere uses it to aid the virtuous characters in portraying the real nature of TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s characters. Other characters engage themselves in other forms of social masks.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tartuffe Vs Candide specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They possess different magnitudes of deceits. As a way of example, in act II, Dorine hides in some place with the intention of listening to a conversation ensuing between two other characters in the play (Moliere 2.2.1-2). This way, the author presents deception as a menace widely evident in different members of the society: from religious leaders like Tartuffe to non-religious leaders such as Dorine. Within the hierarchies of the familial structures, the author employs social masks differently in Tartuffe . As a result, those individuals belonging to lower hierarchies in the family social structure tend to employ social masks as a means of acquiring more power. Dorine, a servant deploys social mask combined with deception in an attempt to curtail oppressive authority exercised against Mariane by her farther. Orgon reveals his intentions of wanting Mariane to marry Tartuffe to her and emphasizes that no for an answer was unacceptable. Even though such a prospect terrified her, her father had already made a decision for such a move and his decision was final. Mariane was thus reluctant to object her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. As the conversation continued between Orgon and Mariane, Dorine appears all of a sudden compelling Orgon to complain of DorineÃ¢â¬â¢s actions of Ã¢â¬Å"eavesdroppingÃ¢â¬ on their conversation (Moliere 2.2.18). Dorine ardently complains about OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to marry off Marianne to Tartuffe while disregarding MarianneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions about the same. It is, thus, deducible that, for the purposes of protection of MarianeÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and rights, Dorine exemplifies some traits of deception and consequently possesses a motif of social mask: hiding in order to listen secretly to a conversation. Overview of Candide Authored by FranÃ §ois Moliere Aurouet De Voltaire, Candide carries hefty critical introspection of the social masks characterizing institutions of seventieth century France. The author was a distinguished philosopher of the time of the release of the novel. Perhaps Candide was a catalyst of change. Despite making several attacks on the church and the contemporary subscriptions to his philosophical construction, the author offers a provocative comedy, which provides a few solutions to social stalemates. However, some unenlightened ideas that are not subtle catalysts for an enlightened revolution against the regime are evident in the novel, as we may now know it today. For instance, many of the women characters are prostitutes while both Rousseau and Voltaire believe that it is unwise to educate the poor! (Shocke Para. 5).The concept of social masking, therefore, assumes a fair share of VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s masterwork Candide.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Motif of social mask in Candide Candide features as the main character of the play Candide. He is not an outright fool like Orgon. However, the reader feels much pity towards the character, which in one way or another, measures up to more than the pity he or she feels towards Orgon. The loss of his lover affects Candide to the level that he wanders around feeling utterly lost and helpless. As the author unfolds, he Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦wandered for a long time without knowing where he was going, weeping, raising his eyes to heavenÃ¢â¬ (Voltaire 312). Similar to Tartuffe, Voltaire challenges religious hypocrisy. He presents the clergy, identifiable as inquisitors, as inhumane. He involves himself in the act of execution of the fellow citizens: a move justified by the existence of philosophical differences, which were not acceptable. Such acts are merely presentations of falsified beliefs that the clergyÃ¢â¬â¢s roles entail correcting intolerable social actions by the citizens. This is perhaps correct since they are involved in a myriad of sins that they preach against and yet they do not punish themselves. They are the jewel thieves who keep and condone mistresses while preaching against homosexuality. They ingrain themselves deeply in homosexual acts. Perhaps the pope portrays one of the most ironical situations. Despite taking celibacy vows, he, in fact, has a daughter. Opposed to what religious officialÃ¢â¬â¢s outward appearance portrays them, their actual character and acts, enshrined within masks painted Ã¢â¬ËholyÃ¢â¬â¢ from outside, their inner profiles are full of darkness, otherwise referred to as Ã¢â¬ËungodlinessÃ¢â¬â¢. In unmasked state, the religious leaders advocate for water thereby drinking wine. The author portrays the officials of the church as the most sinful individuals in Candide. Desires to deceive for purposes of material gain drive other charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ acts. For instance, Cunegonde accepts Don Fernando marriage proposal, de spite his attachment with Candide. She accepts the proposal not simply because she loves Don Fernando but because of his Financial well-being. This way she deceives Don Fernando about her true intents of accepting to marry him. The greatest fool to Candide is perhaps himself just like Orgon. Wherever he goes, Candide cannot stay for long due to his determination to pursue his true love: Cunegonde. Cunegonde plays much similar role to Tartuffe: eroding other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s senses through deceit. On return from asylum, Candide encounters people who fool him again. They steal all his fortune away from him because CunegondeÃ¢â¬â¢s love has eroded his senses. Based on his loveÃ¢â¬â¢s constructed appearance, CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s life seems betrodden wherever he goes. No matter whether it entails overcoming cannibal sturdy lugs, going through situations involving shipwrecks, floggings, or even earthquakes; nothing turns out to work well for him. Somehow analogous to the OrgonÃ¢â¬â¢s sit uation: failing to listen to his family warning about the evil nature of his Ã¢â¬ËsaintÃ¢â¬â¢ friend, Candide is not ready and willing to embrace reason in an attempt to differentiate the true and falsified appearance of his love: Cunegonde . Disguised appearance presents itself for quite a limited time span. There comes a time when people strip off the social masks to expose the real nature. Despite the initial indications of flawlessness in TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s character, Orgon comes into acquaintance of his true nature ordering him to vacate his house. A similar scenario presented itself to Candide. The author says, Ã¢â¬Å"the tender lover Candide, seeing his lover Cunegonde with her skin weathered, her eyes bloodshot, breasts fallen, her cheeks seamed, her arms red and scaly, recoiled three steps in horror and then advanced only out of politenessÃ¢â¬ (Voltaire 399). Now, the author provides a turnaround point in which an originally deceived person comes into revelations of what has been ailing him or her all through his or her life. This is perhaps so since Candide comes to realize the true physique appearance of her love which had always been concealed by the love he had for her. Conclusion Based on the expositions made in the paper, it suffices to declare social masking a style that comes in handy in the two works, despite the evident difference of authorship. Both authors criticize the deceitful nature of human beings. By setting two evidently deceived men, with their fortunes taken away: by people who wear social masks to conceal their identities, the authors shed light on the fact that either man deceives others or others deceive him. Through humorous and ironical situations presented symbolically using social masks, the authors are able to strike their collective goal: correcting some of the social errors that people manifest day-by-day. Otherwise, as the adage goes, never judge a book by its cover: the cover could be a mask. Works Cited Moli ere, Jean-Baptiste. Tartuffe. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989. Shocke, Locker. Candide: Literary Criticism, 2009. Web. https://litcrit.fandom.com/wiki/Candide. Voltaire, FranÃ §ois. Candide. Britain: Bloomington Publishers, 1961. Wightman, Madeleine. Moliere, 2010. Web. Footnotes (Moliere 1.1. 51) In fact, Madame Pernelle calls Tartuffe a holy man based on his appearance rather than reality. (Moliere 1.5.21) The author reveals one instance of the masking technique. Publicly, Tartuffe is man whose main agenda is to offer charity work. However, the reality is that behind him lies his true self: he is an adulterer. (Wightman Para.12) In this paragraph, Wightman confirms the central theme of Tartuffe as hypocrisy where TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance as a devoted preacher significantly differs with his immoral actions. (Wightman Para 16) The paragraph presents the mistaken praises that hypocrites receive from people who do not know their true characters. Orgon is such an example following his re spect for Tartuffe (Moliere 1.1.33) Before the eyes of people, Tartuffe is a Ã¢â¬Ëwithout blemishÃ¢â¬â¢ person (Moliere 2.4.23) The author here shows how people can hide their true characters by publicizing actions that differ from their private ones (Moliere 2.4 31) The author presents this piece of advice to pretenders: they should consider emulating a virtuous life (Moliere 2.2.1-2) The hiding here is symbolic in that the two parties in the conversation view Dorine as absent while in the real sense, she is present in the place of the dialogue (Moliere 2.2.18) Refer to the comment above (Shocke Para. 5) The author here presents things as they are contrary to what or how they ought to be. While the view of the then society of not educating the poor was right according to it, it conceals the reality that all people need education regardless of his/her financial status (Voltaire 312) The fact that he does not know where he is heading is an implication of a misidentified direction . Where he heads is not where he ought to head: the real direction of life has been masked by the wrong one (Voltaire 399) The author takes the reader to the step of unmasking what has been masked. Therefore, as the adage goes, behind the beauty lie the true colors. In other words, there is always the true person behind what people see of any specific person This essay on Tartuffe Vs Candide was written and submitted by user Akira Richards to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
History Of Egyptian Architecture Free Online Research Papers EGYPTIAN PERIOD (3100-311 BC.) To begin with, Egypt, the cradle of the arts of architecture and the seat of the earliest known civilization presents the astonishing picture of a society which went all the way from primitive life to the high level of the civilization by the middle of the third millenium B.C, and then lost its creative power but retained its status for another 2,500 years. By studying the architecture of this civilization we find two very big difficulties. The first is a enormous lenght of time, and the second is the scarity of information. It is difficult to push the true history architecture back so far without trepassing upon ground which belongs to archaelogy. However remains of their architecture are incredibly conserved; this is due to the fine quality of the building stones which Egyptian used, to the dry climate, and to their desire to erect monuments which would endure for ever and it is! Today we can see them on the edge of the sprawling suburbs of Cairo; we have to imagine the emptiness that must have once existed. I) The great history of the cradle of architecture As the pioneers of cicilization and the first teachers of mankind its necessary to come back to the deep egyptian history. In addition to the monumental tombs, with their vast array of historical and others records, extracts have been preserved from the writings of Manetho, an egyptian priest, living in the third century B.C. , who compiled a histoy of his country. Manetho grouped the monarchs of Egypt under some thirty dynasties, but considerable doubt has been thrown upon the accuracy of his chronology. Although other information, more or less reliable, relative to Egyptian history has been obtained from various ancient papyrus manuscripts, yet the question of the exact antiquity of Egypt still remins a matter of controversy. Tradition assigns the commencement of the Egyptian monarchy to a certain Menes, who, at a remote date, founded a dynasty at This. The first dynasty, which, according to Manetho, lasted for 253 years, was followed by a second Thinite dynasty of kings, who reigned for 302 years. The sovereignity was then transferred to Memphis, where the kongs of the third dynasty reigned for 214 years. There is no clear evidence of the actual commences, therefore, with the reign of Sneferu, the founder of so-called fourth dynasty at Memphis Even at that remote period, which Erman places at 2830 and Profesor Rawlinson at 2500 B.C., civilization had already been developed to a considerable extent. Hieroglyphic writing had been invented, numerous pyramids built, great progress made in the arts of sculpture and engraving, and confortable house of wood or stone were in existence. Three kings of the 4th dynasty are especially notable for their monumental efforts in pyramid building, namely , Khufu, or Cheops, the second monarch of the dynasty, who erected the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, near Memphis; Shafra, or Chephren, who built the Second Pyramid and the temple of the Sphinx and probably carved the colossal Sphinx at Gizeh; and Menkaura, or Mycerninus, who commenced The Third Pyramid. The following dynastic periods are of special importance in the political and general history of the country : THE OLD EMPIRE Dynasties IV and V, from about 2830 BC Dynasty VI, from about 2530 BC THE MIDDLE EMPIRE Dynasty XII, about 2130 BC Dynasty XIII, about 1930 BC THE NEW EMPIRE Dynasty XVIII, about 1530 to 1320 BC Dynasty XIX, about 1320 to 1180 BC Dynasty XX, about 1180 to 1050 BC The seven kings of the 5th dynasty governed from Memphis and continued to built pyramids and tombs which, however, were designed upon a far less magnificient scale than those of their predecessors of the 4th dynasty. In the 6th dynasty the centre of the government from Memphis was transfered to Abydos. This dynasty was notable for the completion of the third Great Pyramid of Gizeh. Following long times of obscur kings who, owing to the troublous times in which they lived, left few monuments and buildings, came te famous invasion of the Shephred Kings, a foreign race of monarch, probably Hittites, who ruled Egypt during the period known as the Middle Empire. The founder of the 18th dynasty expelled the Shepherd Kings and reinstated a native monarchy at Thebes, where he and his successor ruled during the period known as the New Empire. In the course of this dynasty two great Colossi were set up at Thebes and the temple of Ammon built at Luxor. In the sucessing dynasty, Manethos nineteenth, the great pillared hall at Karnak was built by Seti I, who also erected numerous temples and commenced the construction of a fresh canal between the Nil and the Red Sea. Setis son, Ramesu II, or Rameses, was a distinguished monarch, and during his reign many great architectural and engineering works were carried out. The unfinished canal, connecting the Nil with the red Sea, and the Ramesseum were completed by this king, who also constructed a grat wall to protect Egypt from the east. In these, as in other great Egyptian buildings, the forced labour of prisoners of war and slave was employed. Rameses III, the second king of the twentieth dynasty, built a magnificent temple at Medinet-Abu and encouraged trade. His successors were undistinguished and feeble monarchs under whom the power began to pass from the king to the priests, who founded a dynasty of their own order. At a later period the Ethiopians extended their sway over southern Egypt. The last period of independant Egyptian history was marked by a singular recovery of national vigour under Psamatik I, or Psammetichus, the founder of the 26th dynasty, who, aided Gyges, King of Lydia, established himself as king over the whole country in 655 BC. Under this monarch great architectural projects, that had remained in abeyance since the time of Rameses III, resumed, the temples at Thebes and Medinet-Abu were restored,and large buildings were constructed at Sais, Mendes, Philae and Heliopolis. Psamatik III, the last king of this dynasty, was defeated by the Persians at Pelusium in 527 BC, and Egypt became a province of Persia. After the death of Alexander the Great, Egypt fell into the hands of Ptoemy, who was crowned king in 306 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty lasted for nearly three centuries, namely, to the death of Cleopatra, in 30 BC, when Egypt came under the dominion of the Roman Empire. II) Characteristic of Egyptian architecture Principal features Pyramidal and Columnar Architecture When we think of Egypt we think of pyramids. The pyramid represents the earliest example of Egyptian architecture, the temptation to employ decorative detail is repressed and subordinated to the desire to construct a monumental tomb of an imperishable nature, gigantic in size, and impressive by its majestic severity. Its form instantly conveys a sense of stability, through clarity of outline and breadth of base, whether as an isolated object or as one element among others. The Step Pyramid at Saqqara was the first pyramid to be constructed in Egypt and the largest in the stepped form. Later the Egyptians simplified the form, stressing its outine and profile. The pyramids at Giza of Cheops, Khephren, and Mycerinus of the 4th Dynasty (2465-2323 BC) are pure geometrical forms. The temple at the top was replaced by a point, and stepped sides became smooth stone. The pyramid was built up layer by layer in steps until the peak was reached and capped, after which the sloping sides were brought down in stone from the top. Structurally, the pyramid comprises four sloping, triangular planes which spring from a square base and meet at a single point; the outline combines with the horizontal lie of the land to complete the shape of the architecture. Tombs and Temples This impressive and majectic aspiration of Egyptians is also apparent in the rock-cut galleries, temples, obelisk and tombs of later times. As exemple of the artistic skill and scientific knowledge of their constructors, Egyptians temple are preeminent. The earliest temple consisted of a small rectangular chamber, or sanctuary, to which only priests were admitted, containing an altar for sacrifices. Its one-entrance doorway was placed in the front wall of the building. Temples of a later date were built on a much more elaborate plan, rooms, intended for a storage of a sacrificial and ceremonial objects, being grouped round the sanctuary, and in advance of this block of buildings, there were one or more pillared halls. Beyond the halls was a colonnaded courtyard, in which the priests and worshippers were accustomed to assemble, approached through a central gateway flanked by two massive tower-like structures with battering walls, called pylons. A long avenue bordered with shinxes led to the outer courtyard Obelisks Egyptians obelisks cut from a single block of granite are quadrilateral in section, the width diminishing gradually from the base to the top of the shaft which is terminated by a small pyamidion (pyramid-shaped apex). Placed on plain square pedestrals they were usually set up in pairs in front of pylons. The height of the shaft was generally about ten times its thickness at the base, and its four faces were usually adorned with hieroglyphic inscriptions.The loftiest one known is taht of Queen Hatshepsu at Karnak, which is no less than 109 feet in height. Sphinx and Colossal Statues The sphinx, the emblem of royalty, was three kinds, namely : the andro-sphinx which had the head of a man and the body of a lion, the crio-sphinx with a head of a ram and the body of a lion ; and the hierosphinx , with the head of a hawl and the body of a lion. The great Sphinx in front of the pyramids t Gizeh, shown originally resented the appearance of an enormous crouching androsphinx. Between its huge paws was a small temple approached by a flight of steps and constructed of plain monolithic blocks of granite. With the exception of forelegs, which were made from separate blocks, the whole of this huge monument was cut out of the solid rock. Many of the colossal statues of Egyptians kings were of gigantic size. For example, the seated figure of Rameses, at Ramesseum, was 60 feet, and that of Memnon, at Thebes%%%, 53 feet in height. Wonders of Ancient Egypt: 2,575 BC 2,134 BC: Old Kingdom ? Abu Ghurab Ras Budran Step Pyramids of Djoser ? The Giza Pyramids ? The Sphinx ? 2,040 BC 1,640 BC: Middle Kingdom Abydos Karnak ? Thebes Luxor Temple ? Temple of Karnak Serabit el-Khadem Tell el Daba 1,550 BC -1,070 BC: New Kingdom Tombos Piramesses Abu Simbel ? Amarna Deir el Bahri Kush Kingdom Deir el Medina Abu Simbel Tutankhamuns Tomb Characteristics Due to the scarcity of lumber, the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sunbaked mud bricks and stones, mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. From the Old Kingtom onward, stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes. Egypt houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. It was placed in molds and left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. Many ancient Egyptian towns have disappeared because they were situated near the cultivated area of the Nile Valley and were flooded as the river bed slowly rose during the millennia. Fortunately, the dry, hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures. Examples include the village Deir al-Madina, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun, and the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Also, many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone. Thus, our understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based mainly on religious monuments, massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings, possibly echoing a method of construction used to obtain stability in mud walls. In a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled surface adornment of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Although the use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty, all monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns. Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors. Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarabs, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, and the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, and the buds and flowers of the lotus. Hieroglyphs were inscribed for decorative purposes as well as to record historic events or spells. In architecture there were variations in detail and minor changes of fashion, but the character of Egyptian design throughout three thousand years is remarkably uniform. There was a general tendency towards greater fineness of finish unfer the later dynasties. Egyptian construction is extremly simple and crude. The need for enclosing large room was not great because of the climate, and the problem of roofing with large spans seems never to have been attempted.Shade was important, and vast columnar halls, loggias and cloisters are characteristic. The arch used in Mesopotamia must have been known from the early times in Egypt but its structural possibilities were not exploited. Planning was not very imaginative and designers seem to have been obsessed with the idea of a main axis-the avenue, the processional way-flanked by monuments and pylons. The origins of architectural detail seems traceable to the forms of timber-, mud-,and ree-construction evolved in the pre-dynastic era. Familiar animals and plants figure largely in highly conventionalized forms in the decoration. Sculpture in the round was important and the incised figures of gods and legendary creatures, as well as pictures of events and hieroglyphic inscriptions, were much used on walls and columns with little regard for the architectural forms Detail of building WALLS, ROOFS, COLUMNS, AND ORNEMENTATION Plans : The plans of egyptians buildings were almost invariably rectangular in form, other geometrical figures, such as the circle or octagon, being studiously avoided. But despite the use of straight lines, there was much irregularity displayed in setting out the plans, the walls being seldom placed at right angles to each pther. The arrangement of the temples was not one that lent itself to external adjuncts of the temple, such as the long avenue of shinxes, huge obelisks, towering pylons, and arcarded courtyards,had an air of stately grandeur and formed a fitting counterpart to the impressive gloom which prevailed within. Walls: Granite, stone, and brick were used by the Egyptians for the walls of their buildings, which enormously thick. The stone-facing blocks were carefully worked and skillfully bedded and jointed. Roofs the ordinary roofing consisted of flat slabs of stine , supported, when the area to be covered was large, by immense beams, or trabeations, of stone or granite which were necessary, received intermediate support from stone columns or pillars. Openings in the walls, chether in the form or doorways or windows, were uniformly square headed and otherwise simple in their architectural treatment. Exept where the lintel was overshadowed by a cornice, the doorways had merely a slight prohection from the face of the walling. Moldings, or projections to relieve that flatness of the walling, were used very sparingly by the ancient Egyptians. Reference has already been made to enriched torus mouldings worked on the arrises of the external walling, and to the curved projecting cornice, surmounted by a flat band, which emphasized the horizontal lines of the buildings, and pratically these were the only moldings used. Columns and piers were sometimes cut from a single blocks of stone or granite, as in the case of the monolithic pillars of the temple of the Sphinx. But as a rule these supports were built up in irregular courses of masonry and afterwards coated with plaster to obtain a monolithic effect. The process by which the plain, square, uncarved pier was developed into the richly ornamented Egyptian column has been explained in the following way. First its four angles were cut and it became octogonal form ; a second cutting produced a sixteen-sidded column the side of which, when made slightly concave, became flutes, while a large stone slab or cap, placed on the top, gave it more than general resemblance to the Doric column. Egyptian columns and support may be roughly classified as follows : the square pier, or post of stone, the polygonal column, plain or fluted. the bud capital column. the lotus-plower capital column. the bell-shaped capital column. the Hator-headed capital column. Of these columns or supports those under were often embellished with vertical of hieroglyphics, and columns classified under were sometimes painted or otherwise ornamented. Those under, of which is an example, concisted of three varieties, the oldest of which, at Beni-Hassan, is composed of four plants with rounded stems bound together by a banded necking. Those of the Labyrinth, and of the processional hall of Thothmes III, consisted of eight stems each presenting a sharp edge on the outer side, the bulbous-shaped lower part of the column being ornamented with leaves. At a later period the simple round shaft variety of this column came into use. The shaft of the lotus flower capital, shown in generally either plan or decorated with inscriptions,was sometimes worked to present the appearance of a group of clustered columns. In early times the shaft was curved inwards at its base, but in the Protemaic period the bulbous shape is seldom found. The columns surrounding the first court at the temple of Edfou rise straight from their bases, and in these and other examples the tapering sides of the shaft are finished by flat bands or neckings placed one above the other. Lotus-flower columns were usually surmounted by a square die, and adorned with rows of leaves and sprigs of lotus or papyrus plaed at the springing of the capital. Ornamentation The earliest Egyptian temples are said to have contained neither hieroglyphic inscriptions nor sculptured images, but at the beginning of the fourth dynasty, at which periof our exact knowledge of Egyptian art commences, the primitive severity of their architectural treatment had been abandoned. At later periods in the history of the country the wall surfaces, pillars, and columns of important building were freely enriched with sculpture and inscriptions, and still later, under the rule of the Ptolemies, decoration in every conceivable form was employed. Among the natural forms of which Egyptian decorative art is based, the following were supplied by a vegetable kingdom : the lotus : a large water lily of grat beauty, the sacred flower which kings offered to the gods the papyrus : a tall smooth reed from the stalk of which the Egptians manufactured their paper and the palm. From the animal and bird kongdom came a beetle, the asp, birds, feathers, and winged plulage ; these, and many other types of decorative detail, were used during all epochs of the national art. The well-kown ornemental enrichment the winged disc, contins a central disc, representing the sun, supported by two asps from which spring widely out stretched wings to symbolize the beneficent activity of sun Wall and Ceiling decoration Hieroglphic and pictorial records of historical events were used to relieve the monotomous effect of large expanses of wall surfaces. In the private tombs the daily lives and occupations of their dead owners were depicted and scenes illustrating the relation which existed between Egypt and the gods decorated the immense wall spaces of the temples.Qualified in his dual capacity of god and man, the king alone was sufficiently high descent to act as a mediator between the deities and the people. Accordingly the Egyptian monarchis pictured in the temples as interceding out the wine, and burning the incense. Ceiling were painted blue and relieved with five pointed yellw stars; in the Ptolemaic age zodiacs, fashioned after Greek models, appear in combinaison with astronomical tables of native origin. Whether carved or painted, ornementation of the character was always conventional in its treatment, and if carved was the earliest peiods usually executed in low relief and sunk within the suface of the stone. But at a later period the wal surface was more deeply cut, with the result that the ornamentation stood out in high relief. Architectural Style ? Focal Points -Statues of Pharaohs and sanctuaries of gods in temples, and sarcophagus in tombs dominated the whole architectural layout. ? Walls immensely thick and sloping structural requirement for balancing (vertical walls of stone are unstable) ? Stone Columns closely spaced Large spans were not possible ? Stone Lintels massive with short spans, stone is a material that has a weak tensile strength ? Flat roofs Domes and vaults were unknown in Egypt ? Small Openings large doors and windows are not possible in stone construction, this also secured privacy to the religious structures inaccessible to the public ? Hieroglyphs- recording of historic events in stone obelisks and walls ? Religious symbols (scarabs, solar disk) essential component for the decoration of all architectural elements ? Single storey buildings Techniques ? The basic construction method was post and lintel. ? Buildings were erected without mortar, so the stones had to fit and cut precisely together. ? Ramps were used to allow workmen to carry stones to the top of structures as height was added, the ramp was raised. Disappearance of the Ancient Egyptian culture Egypt became to be influenced by some other nations which brought the end of the Ancient Egyptian culture. They were conquered by the Greeks in 332 BC. As a result of this they became a province of the Greek empire and they were influenced by the Greek culture both in their art and in their lifestyles, however their religion was respected by the Greeks. In 30 BC they were conquered by the Roman Empire. This brought the final end to the Ancient Egyptian culture. They no longer had pharaohs, they no longer built pyramids, they no longer followed their traditional rules in their art. Their old culture slowly but surely disappeared and all that is left is the ancient Artifacts Research Papers on History Of Egyptian ArchitectureCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionBringing Democracy to AfricaOpen Architechture a white paper19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeThe Project Managment Office SystemWhere Wild and West MeetQuebec and Canada
Saturday, February 29, 2020
A business plan is perceived to be a paramount tool in any business organization.Ã Apple Inc. is an American based company that manufactures and market mobile communication devices, portable music players. This company is the largest information technology provider in the world. The aim of this report is to create business focus, develop and prepare a plan of activities to be used as a guide to Apple Inc. in achieving its set objectives and goals. For companies to thrive, there must be established policies in conducting its operations aiming at increasing their profit margins hence continued business life.Ã Increasing productivity of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products, the management may employ strategies like use of new technology in their operation, review of the existing setup and implement continuous improvement approach during the process. One of the primary goals of Apple Inc. firm is to increase the productivity of information technology products. Therefore, this translates to high sales volume hence high-profit margins are achieved in the long run. The company can attain this through creating brand awareness about its products to the customers (Csiszar, 2017). Brand awareness can be accomplished through the internet (web leverage, the creation of social media presence) and sponsoring public events such as open games and golf tournaments. In the event, the products are displayed to the potential customers with disposable inc ome to purchase the product. In every business to remain active in the market, there is a need for established plan of activities declaring a day to day activities. In particular, the plan is used to map the future, to support the growth of the firm, to develop and communicate the course of action to the people and to support exit strategic management processes. Apple Inc. products remain to uphold the original companyÃ¢â¬â¢s promises to its customers during its inception. The company operates in California and targets global markets. The company uses strategies such as Apple brand personality (focuses on emotions about how the customer feels after using the company product), Apple customer experience (all the goods must conform to Apple brands) and Apple brand halo effect. The company goal in employing such strategies is to maintain a brand promise to its potential customers (Marketing-Minds, 2016). It is much vital for any business to have proper market review requirement processes during their operations. Apple Inc. The company employs tools such as Steeple analysis technique, Scenario planning technique, critical success factor analysis (CSFA) and the five forces technique.Ã Also, the top management reviews market performance and the desired direction, operational matters pertaining the business and workers organization for proper performance analysis of the firm. The company operates in US based markets and other international markets across the world. Determining resource requirement is one of major goal before business operation commences. The primary purpose of the analyst in business is to give out aspects that can reduce overall costs in operation. Apple Inc. employs mechanisms such as conducting of survey cycle, scheduling brainstorming meeting and interviewing key stakeholders as some of the major processes in identifying resource required. The company is ended by the CEO being assisted by the managers (Rowland, 2017). Consultations with Stakeholders Apple Inc. needs to form both internal and external stakeholders in its operation. Internal stakeholders include the employees and company owners.Ã On the other hand, external stakeholders include the investors or those funding the business project (Denton, 2017). The firm consultation with stakeholders aim is to yield benefits like an evaluation of firmÃ¢â¬â¢s action, identification, and tracking of firmÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and the establishment of brand values. Through the consultation process, information flow to and from the stakeholders become much efficient. Therefore, a devised process is much vital in the organization. Developed channel to achieve this can take the form belowÃ Ã Apple Inc. needs to develop performance goal and actions techniques like a balanced scorecard. Management can include new strategies with the aim of achieving a breakthrough in operation. This mode translates strategic business objectives into performance measures. The following schematic chart gives activities flow in performance measures in Apple IncÃ (Rousseau, 2015). Report on the main aspect performance measureÃ at different stages Apple Inc.Ã Incorporate scorecard technique in evaluating performance action in the management in achieving its set objectives. Executive management focuses on measurement. In all the four categories in the plan and appropriate be drafted. In particular, Apple Inc.Ã Being scheduled to be a PCs company, consumer loyalty measurements are merely being acquainted in arranging representatives toward turning into a client-driven organization. The company needs to build its free studies with a specific end goal to track its key market fragments in far and broad perspective. At this phase of performance measure implementation, key aspects need to addressed for the easy actualization of the company set objectives (Rousseau, 2015). In innovation and learning perspective, the development and learning goals are proposed to drive change in monetary, client, and interior process execution. At Apple Inc., such upgrades originated from an item and administration advancement that would make new wellsprings of income and market development, and also from a nonstop change in inner work forms. The primary target was measured by percent revenue from new administrations. A staff disposition study and a metric for the quantity of representative, recommendations measured regardless of whether such an atmosphere was being made. At long last, income per worker measured the results of representative duty and preparing programs. Similarly, the financial point of view included three measures of significance to the shareholder. Return-on-capital-utilized and income reflected inclinations, while consistent estimate quality flagged the corporate parent's craving to diminish the chronicled vulnerability brought about by unforeseen varieties in execution. Apple Inc. administration included two monetary measures. Extend benefit gave concentrate on the venture as the fundamental unit for arranging and control.Ã To create measures of inner procedures, Apple Inc. administrators characterized the life cycle of investment from dispatch to culmination. The new concentration underscored actions that incorporated key business forms. Inner reviews had uncovered that the circuitous expenses from a mishap could be 5 to 50 times the immediate costs. The scorecard included a security file, got from an extensive wellbeing estimation framework that could recognize and order every single undesired occasion with the potential for damage to individuals, property, and process (Rousseau, 2015). The firm has been able to achieve the set goals and objectives, in survey conducted indicates that there is an increase in net sales, increased revenue and minimal complaints from the potential customers. The key performance indicators used by Apple Inc. can be customer feedbacks and quality levels of the products this clearly indicate that the primary set business objectives are set by the firm. Also,Ã the company has devised other production strategies like patenting with the aim of venturing into wider global markets (NASDAQ, 2017). For this matter, the firm will have wide access to the customers hence enjoying benefits of economies of scale. Since the inception of business operations, Apple Inc. has shown underperformance of around 7% over the period which is an important aspect to market capitalization. Underperformance in any production firm seems to be a major challenge which ought to addressed with immediate effect. This can lead business shut down if the status becomes severe.Ã In recent years approximately 4.4% drop in revenue has been encountered in the firm as a result of a decrease in iPhone sales over the period (NASDAQ, 2017). To incorporate a change in the organization, bottom-up communication becomes vital goal to be pursued by the management. As a matter of fact, new skills are imparted to the workers hence improve in quality and reduced production cycles. An excellent training model must have five steps namely; first understanding the areas underperforming, planning and preparation, execution and lastly assessing to gauge its functionality. This plan seems to restate Apple Inc. to uplift its underperformed areas (Denton, 2017). Apple's Product Development Process might be a standout amongst the best outline handle at any point actualized. The step is to design layout at the forefront; design teams are separated from the large company, reviewing and lastly packaging of the product ready to the ready (IDF, 2012). Plan goals and objectives need to be communicated to the recipients through the right channel like print or online at the start of the operation. The staff ought to be up to the tasks infirm. In developing performance reports, the message needs to be precise mainly for the recipients to understand quickly.Graphic rating scale method was employed in tracking the performance. More important, production variances were identified through revenue checks. Lastly, recommendations of more improved models become paramount to Apple Inc. Csiszar, J. (2017). How to Increase Brand Awareness for a Product. Retrieved from Chron: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/increase-brand-awareness-product-41158.html Denton, P. (2017). Report to UN Environment Major Groups and Stakeholders, Region of North America. IDF. (2012). AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Product Development Process Ã¢â¬â Inside the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Design Organization. Retrieved from Interaction Design: https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/apple-s-product-development-process-inside-the-world-s-greatest-design-organization Marketing-Minds. (2016). Apple's Branding Strategy. Retrieved from Marketing minds: https://www.marketingminds.com.au/apple_branding_strategy.html NASDAQ. (2017, Feb 21). Apple Inc. (AAPL) Company Financials. Retrieved from Nasdaq: https://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/aapl/financials?query=income-statement Rousseau, M. B. (2015). Organizational Narcissism: Scale development and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication, and Conflict, 19(1), 159. Rowland, C. (2017). Company Analysis: Business Potential & Performance. Retrieved from Panmore: https://panmore.com/apple-inc-operations-management-10-decisions-areas-productivity